Bitcoin Studies: Finding Nakamoto Satoshi【7】——One Person or a Team
ZWS(Zhu Weisha), a Famous Chinese Entrepreneur
7.1 Design and programming implemented by one person
The initial first version of Bitcoin's code was only about 16,000 lines (1) and was also said to be 20,000. A good programmer in C++ can complete 300-500 lines of full code in a day, which takes about 40-60 days. It is a one-person task in terms of code volume.
Laszlo, an early contributor to Satoshi Nakamoto's code, is known as the "Big pie brother or Pizza guy" and is the guy who bought two pizzas for 10,000 bitcoins on May 22, 2010. He believes Bitcoin is a product of brainstorming and asked Satoshi Nakamoto about it.
Laszlo： "How long have you been working on this design, Satoshi? It seems very well thought out, not the kind of thing you just sit down and code up without doing a lot of brainstorming and discussion on it first. Everyone has the obvious questions looking for holes in it but it is holding up well."
Satoshi： "Since 2007. At some point, I became convinced there was a way to do this without any trust required at all and couldn't resist to keep thinking about it. Much more of the work was designing than coding."
“Fortunately, so far all the issues raised have been things I previously considered and planned for.” (2)
Note that here Satoshi Nakamoto is using the singular person. That is, the program was designed and developed by one person, with more design time than coding, coinciding with the amount of code.
After Bitcoin was developed, Satoshi Nakamoto took on the customer service role, which from the content of the conversation, is one person. It is also confirmed by Doncho Karaivanov's posting of Satoshi Nakamoto's work schedule. (3) The scattered paths attached to the article clearly show Satoshi Nakamoto's work schedule, which is a global project, and the customer service pattern of his commute would be clearer if he were not a single person. Figure 1 reflects the work and rest of Satoshi Nakamoto.
The workload in the latter period is vast. Answered twenty-five posts on July 16, 2010. answered Three posts from 0:44 to 2:43 and answered 22 posts from 14:46 to 22:20. The rest pattern in between is always maintained.
Figure 1 is the email time chart
Bitcoin was an "air" coin in the early days, and hiring someone to post for him costs money like a centralized system. When discussing David Chaum's e-Cash project, David's project was centralized and collapsed when the funding chain broke. Satoshi Nakamoto has evaluated David Chaum's project as a problem, saying that the advantage of his project is that it will not collapse. Hiring people is not an option for him; Otherwise, it would not be possible to simply leave in just 19 hours when the WikiLeaks incident happened. Community development is all volunteer, and answering questions is also volunteer. So Satoshi Nakamoto's post shows that it is one person.
Programming is one person is the most reasonable explanation. In addition to the objective evidence above, Early people who had email contact with Satoshi Nakamoto, such as Martti Malmi, are also considered a person. As long as you carefully read Nakamoto's post on the forum, it is not difficult to conclude that it is a person. But is Satoshi Nakamoto just one person? We found other clues when we researched Satoshi Nakamoto's departure.
7.2 A tragic way to leave
7.2.1 WikiLeaks triggers Satoshi Nakamoto's unhurried departure
The reason Satoshi Nakamoto disappeared was because of the WikiLeaks incident. The United States wanted Assange, and in early December 2010, financial institutions MasterCard, Visa credit card, and PayPal cut off payments for donations to WikiLeaks. On December 10, ”PC World “published an article suggesting that it could be payments in Bitcoin. It caused a strong backlash from Satoshi Nakamoto. (4)
Satoshi Nakamoto wrote: (5)
"It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet's nest, and the swarm is headed towards us.”
Why did legitimate financial institutions shut off payments? Because WikiLeaks is allegedly illegal. The U.S. government can't regulate WikiLeaks and can regulate financial institutions. For the same reason, the U.S. government can't control the Bitcoin network; it can control Satoshi Nakamoto. Satoshi Nakamoto's overreaction goes to show that he is an American. "It would be nice to get this kind of attention in other contexts" is a sign of Satoshi Nakamoto's psychological activity, which was not reflected on May 22, 2010, Pizza Day, which was what he called "other contexts," i.e., in a typical business environment use, can not be suspected of funding illegal projects. He felt things had gone too far, and Satoshi Nakamoto was well aware of the cases of "free dollars" and "e-gold." He considered the legal problems that might ensue and published his last post after only 19 hours of consideration. (6)
“There's more work to do on DoS(Denial of Service), but I'm doing a quick build of what I have so far in case it's needed, before venturing into more complex ideas. The build for this is version 0.3.19.”
Note: "so far in case," that is, Satoshi Nakamoto implemented precautions for denial of service attacks.
“- Added some DoS controls."
”As Gavin and I have said clearly before, the software is not at all resistant to DoS attack. This is one improvement, but there are still more ways to attack than I can count. "
”I'm leaving the -limitfreerelay part as a switch for now and it's there if you need it.”
Note: All of the above is pre-done to resist denial of service attacks.
“- Removed 'safe mode' alerts."
"safe mode" alerts was a temporary measure after the 0.3.9 overflow bug. We can say all we want that users can just run with '-disablesafemode,' but it's better just not to have it for the sake of appearances. It was never intended as a long term feature. Safe mode can still be triggered by seeing a longer (greater total PoW) invalid block chain.”
Note: This safe mode can be triggered and has not been triggered until today, which means that a normal fork will not trigger.
Note: The latest version was published.
Issued the two posts only 19 hours apart. It's been a busy day. What did he do first?
1. added precautions for program security,
2. removed security alert programs that Satoshi Nakamoto himself could control.
He also removed his copyright claim; whether he removed it then or later is unknown (note: I did not find the source about it). And then gave the Bitcoin program upload rights to Gavin Andresen via email. So the first thing He did was to hope that the Bitcoin system would work safely, and The next thing was to clear the relationship, not even the copyright, and that the Bitcoin system had nothing to do with him.
After this happened, there was a lot of speculation in the market, most of which was unreliable. In terms of the facts, it was an unexpected event, and what Satoshi Nakamoto did was to avoid the consequences of that event to his detriment. That is uncertain legal consequences. He doesn't even show up today and probably believes the legal risk still exists. Satoshi Nakamoto is sensitive to the law, and everyone is hurt differently by their legal background, and he understands the caprice of power better because he moved the government's cheese. Suppose Satoshi Nakamoto in China may have been arrested early, at least to restrictions on exit and all Chinese blockchain bigwigs' treatment. He is the head treatment should only be higher.
What would be the consequences of his departure? Below is my analysis, somewhat from the perspective of Satoshi Nakamoto.
The bitcoin program has been improved and is safe to run; no matter whether he is in or out, no one can shut it down.
The resistance to attacks could be better and needs to be maintained by someone. After this outburst, Satoshi handed over the maintenance to Gavin Andresen.
7.2.2 Satoshi Nakamoto's departure conforms to the rules of natural evolution
Prospects are unpredictable, good and bad. So analyze the good side first.
The departure of Satoshi Nakamoto accelerated the evolution of the community. Bitcoin evolved into a BIP proposal, and early personnel held more coins, which ensured the possibility of early development and success of the community. Now it looks like the results are on the bright side. The mechanism of Bitcoin’s design works well. It is an experiment that humans have never done before, and the results are surprising. Humans can evolve naturally, and so does the earth. The original driving force of natural evolution is God. No one can challenge the laws of biological evolution. Your challenge is part of natural evolution. An artificial system also exhibits the characteristics of natural evolution under certain conditions. The most prominent feature of natural evolution is that there is no owner. It is the philosophical height of Satoshi Nakamoto's thinking and the principal for its disappearance. If Bitcoin is a natural evolution, then Satoshi Nakamoto is God. But this God, like Satoshi Nakamoto, is also fake. Because artificial systems are inseparable from human interference, the mechanism design of BIP is like the mechanism design of Washington sages. With good and bad outcome choices, it's partially natural evolution.
Current humans are powerful enough to influence the evolution of nature. Predicting the consequences of this evolution requires a simulated experimental ecology. Bitcoin and blockchain are excellent laboratories for sociology. The laboratory can quickly verify the actual long practice of sociology, especially economics. As a sociologist, especially an economist, if you don’t understand blockchain, relying on logical and evidence analysis is still an antique from the pre-physics era. Because physics depends on experiments, the rapid failure of the Luna (UST) algorithmic stablecoin tells us that fiat currency is not as good as algorithmic stablecoins without government endorsement. From the perspective of natural evolution, human society is more like a large blockchain ecology. Although neither are purely natural systems, they are very similar. Satoshi Nakamoto's
departure imitated natural evolution as much as possible. Gold conforms to the rules of natural evolution. Does fiat currency conform? All the financial theory based on fiat currency is less clear than the algorithm of an algorithmic stablecoin. It may be time for an overhaul.
7.2.3 A great moneymaster gave Satoshi Nakamoto the bottom line
Judging by the number of posts Satoshi Nakamoto replies to and the energy he spends maintaining the system, a person must be at the peak of his power and no longer have the energy to focus on another thing. Without considering the income, he does not have financing for the project either, going or not going to Europe to set up the project, just the size of the cost. And then run the mining program; two years of bitcoin are basically the "air coin" stage, until February 2011 to reach $ 1. From the development phase in 2007 and after he left, he needed to have basic living expenses. What if Satoshi Nakamoto is married and has children? It's a tough decision for the average working-class person.
From the beginning until today, Satoshi Nakamoto's early years account basically did not move, indicating that he is not in a shortage of money. Not short of cash is to say that there is a money master behind him, or they have other projects to make money. From the frequency of replying to the post, it is not feasible to run two large projects simultaneously, so there is a high probability that there is a moneymaster behind it. The moneymaster is behind and making a big decision because if something happens, his early accounts may all be monitored by the authorities, and every move of an address account may be scrutinized. From the bitcoin design principle to turn an address account with no problem but realize into fiat currency can still be traced. On April 26, 2011, Gavin was preparing to attend an intelligence meeting of a government department. For this, in an email to Gavin, he expressed concern that the relevant authorities had long targeted Bitcoin. It means they know all about it. They are doing it for the long term.
How does he live when 10,000 bitcoins aren't worth anything in 2010? Think about it before leaving.
Note that Satoshi rarely uses the word "we" for himself in Bitcoin forums. However, in Bitcoin's white paper, he uses 15 "we," Some occasions of "We" usage understandably refers to Nakamoto himself, while others mean a plural.
Satoshi Nakamoto's description of the attribution of Bitcoin's achievements to Wikipedia is very concise and accurate. The man does not take credit for the contributions of others, but rather "it is a very good idea to give more credit to other contributors." （Satoshi Nakamoto to Gavin Andresen, April 26, 2011，email@example.com） So the "we" in the white paper should be accurate. My original guess was that the "we" is both self and anonymous. Then reflects the habit in the bitcoin forum replies. It turns out that the forums are more likely to use "I," a singular number, which means that one person made up the program. Another person should have been involved in the creation of the white paper. He is the mysterious figure behind Satoshi Nakamoto. This person is no less learned than Satoshi Nakamoto, except that he is not as good at the program. And is his moneymaster.
From the interval of 19 hours between two posts, it seems that Satoshi Nakamoto did two things:
1. discuss with his moneymaster,
2. the aftermath.
Satoshi Nakamoto will quickly build what's already done and then release a new version. Not making something new again. It means that discussing with the moneymaster took a lot of time. Here's what kind of moneymaster piqued my interest.
Bitcoin was far from mature then, and "there was still a lot of DoS (denial of service) work to be done ." An unrelated pure moneymaster would have chosen to let him take the risk. Instead, the moneymaster behind chose to protect him. Choosing to defend him even if it fails, the moneymaster and him are not the usual simple monetary relationship. So how did Satoshi Nakamoto live after he disappeared? In fact, this protection continued until 2015.
In addition to the moneymaster, the community's contribution is more important.
Communities are a tool of natural evolution.
Satoshi Nakamoto, an early address of the coin, is not moving on behalf of the faith; Satoshi Nakamoto believes in their system design and technical design. Believes in natural evolution and that there will be a day out. 1975 is the beginning of the unsealing of gold in the United States; he set his birthday this year, and he is looking forward to bitcoin as the unsealing of gold in 1975, the arrival of the inflection point of gold ushered in a new life. The passcode for unbanning implied on his birthday proves that he is an American again.
A system change has a chance, Satoshi Nakamoto is a believer in naturalism, a believer in Hayek and Mises, and he is waiting. Opportunity can wait or may be created. The game's outcome depends on probability, and We want to develop high-probability events. The conditions are there.
Bitcoin was designed and programmed by one person, with the help of a great moneymaser and schemer behind it, the dedication and constant improvement of Bitcoin volunteers, and the growth of Bitcoin as a contribution of the Bitcoin community. Understanding the process of program development is the easiest and largely uncontroversial. Understanding the product idea is a higher-level problem, leading to the fork is a different understanding of product development, and the next section describes the issues involved.
Satoshi Nakamoto: male, then 33-34 years old, prodigy, American, living on the West Coast, is a cypherpunk. No shortage of money. Freelancer. There is no Satoshi Nakamoto among the deceased possible subjects. He had excellent programming and product design skills and an understanding of the community. Good life to have a good moneymaser and schemer.
1. Yanpeng Lu
Shandong University M.S. in Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health
In 2009 Satoshi Nakamoto released the first version of the Bitcoin source code, including about 16,000 lines of code. Unfortunately, the initial Bitcoin client only supported a limited number of operating systems, including Windows 2000, NT, and XP.
Laszlo：How long have you been working on this design Satoshi? It seems very well thought out, not the kind of thing you just sit down and code up without doing a lot of brainstorming and discussion on it first. Everyone has the obvious questions looking for holes in it but it is holding up well
Satoshi：Since 2007. At some point I became convinced there was a way to do this without any trust required at all and couldn't resist to keep thinking about it. Much more of the work was designing than coding.
Fortunately, so far all the issues raised have been things I previously considered and planned for.
3. Satoshi nakamoto lived in london while working on bitcoin heres how we know
Doncho Karaivanov - November 23, 2020, 1:56 PM
5. It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet's nest, and the swarm is headed towards us.
Re: PC World Article on Bitcoin
Added some DoS limits, removed safe mode (0.3.19)
There's more work to do on DoS, but I'm doing a quick build of what I have so far in case it's needed, before venturing into more complex ideas. The build for this is version 0.3.19.
- Added some DoS controls
As Gavin and I have said clearly before, the software is not at all resistant to DoS attack. This is one improvement, but there are still more ways to attack than I can count.
I'm leaving the -limitfreerelay part as a switch for now and it's there if you need it.
- Removed "safe mode" alerts
"safe mode" alerts was a temporary measure after the 0.3.9 overflow bug. We can say all we want that users can just run with "-disablesafemode", but it's better just not to have it for the sake of appearances. It was never intended as a long term feature. Safe mode can still be triggered by seeing a longer (greater total PoW) invalid block chain.